The JGOFS Global Synthesis Working Group (GSWG),
the JGOFS/GAIM Task Team (JGTT) on 3D Ocean Carbon Modelling and Analysis and
the Institute for Environment & Sustainability, EC Joint Research Centre (Ispra)
hold a Workshop on
"Global Ocean Productivity and the Fluxes of Carbon and Nutrients: Combining Observations and Models",
on 24 – 27 June 2002, in Ispra, Italy.


GAIM logo JGOFS logo JRC_IES logo


Introduction: The JGOFS project has employed a large variety of different approaches to determine marine productivity and the fluxes of carbon and nutrients. The methods range from satellite observations, shipboard measurements, sediment traps, benthic flux up to numerical modeling at regional and global scales. A tremendous effort was accomplished along all these years to reduce the uncertainties in our understanding of the global ocean biogeochemical cycles. Now with JGOFS at its final phase, there is a pressing need to compile and compare the results from the various methods and to investigate whether a consistent picture emerges. The first meeting of the JGOFS Global Synthesis Working Group (GSWG) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands (July 2001) indicated that significant discrepancies between different techniques and models still exist, addressing the need to conduct multi-disciplinary exercises / projects to bridge the gaps between physics and biogeochemistry, between process analyses, observations and modeling. To foster the interaction and cooperation between scientists from different research fields, the GSWG together with the JGTT/OCMIP organised a workshop on: Global Ocean Productivity and the Fluxes of Carbon and Nutrients: combining Observations and Models, hosted in late June 2002 by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Environment and Sustainability (Ispra, Italy).

Objectives: The workshop involve about 70 scientists from around the world representing all aspects of the marine carbon and nutrient cycles – modeling, process studies and experiments, as well as in situ and remote sensing observations. Specific objectives were: 
-- To obtain an overview of the present state of research on global ocean productivity and fluxes of carbon and nutrients with special emphasis on comparisons between observations and models.
-- To address remaining challenges in ocean biogeochemistry and new trends in our understanding of the marine processes and their variability over time and space
-- To explore new research strategies in ocean biogeochemistry for the next decade and foster constructive trans-disciplinary actions within the global change arena.

Agenda: The workshop was structured with half-day session on various themes. Each theme was presented in two equally important parts, a plenary session (with keynote presentations) and a poster session. Both were extensively discussed, giving an opportunity for all participants to comment on the present and future strategic research within each thematic. Slightly different in scope than a formal conference, the purpose of presentations and/or posters in this workshop was to fuel and stimulate discussion. The participants were thus encouraged to present synthesis material, and/or their own perception, including provocative ideas, on oceanic biogeochemistry. The list of topics for discussion included:

Key achievements:
- Primary production estimates;
- Export production and fluxes (the biological pump);
- Deep biogenic fluxes;
- Modeling biogeochemical cycles;…
Remaining challenges:
- Time variability (inter-annual to inter-decadal / paleo-climatic changes);
- Role of ocean margins and coastal zones;
- Air-sea interface;
- Shallow remineralization;
- Global change impacts on ocean processes;…
Research & development:
Global observations (operational surveys; long time-series; satellite); System analysis: Process and simulation models (physical ocean model; eddy and tide parametrization; simplified vs complex trophic schemes;…)
A series of question can be addressed such as:
- Are observed and modeled productivity and flux estimates consistent (reliability of current satellite productivity algorithms, sediment trap consistent with satellite productivity maps)?
- What are the key processes that determine productivity, export flux and remineralization?
- What are the changes in ocean biogeochemistry in a warming environment ? evidence from observations and modeling?
- Which minimum data set will be required to validate models ?

You can access Abstracts and even some Presentations, when available (marked bullet_p)

Monday 24 June (morning) -- Session topic A: "Observing ocean productivity from space" -- Chairperson: Trevor Platt (Comment)

Keynote presentations:
bullet_p"Seasonal and ENSO variability in global ocean phytoplankton chlorophyll" (James A. Yoder and Maureen A. Kennelly) - Abstract
bullet_p"Marine primary production estimates from ocean color: a comparative study of algorithms" (Mary-Elena Carr and Marjorie Friedrichs) - Abstract 
bullet_p"A recipe for ocean productivity, and variations" (John Marra) - Abstract

bullet_p"Sea-air CO2 flux determined from in situ and remotely sensed data: its variability in the Southern Ocean" (Yvan Rangama, J. Boutin, J. Etcheto and L. Merlivat) - Abstract
bullet_p"How productive is the Southern Ocean? Results from inverse modeling compared with satellite based estimates" (Reiner Schlitzer) - Abstract 
bullet_p"Dynamic ecological provinces: a biogeochemical and physiological template for the global ocean" (Mark D. Dowell, Janet W. Campbell and Timothy S. Moore) - Abstract 
bullet_p"Remote sensing of phytoplankton photosynthetic rates and production from measurements of ocean colour" 
(Jim Aiken, Gerald Moore, James Fishwick, Tim Smyth, Claudia Omachi & Kathryn Woods) - Abstract 
bullet_p"Seasonal and interannual variability of chlorophyll a and primary productivity in the subarctic North Pacific during 1997-2000 using multi-sensor remote sensing" (Kosei Sasaoka, Sei-ichi Saitoh, Toshiro Saino) - Abstract 

Monday 24 June (afternoon) -- Session topic B: "From primary production to export flux: factors controlling the export efficiency" -- Chairperson: Edward Laws

Keynote presentations
bullet_p"Incorporating respiration into the ocean carbon budget: lifting the lid off Pandora's box" (Peter J. Le B. Williams) - Abstract
bullet_p"Role of zooplankton in the transformation, remineralization, and export of particulate organic matter in the sea" (Deborah K. Steinberg) - Abstract
bullet_p"Magnitude, variability and controls on the ratio of particle export to primary production in the upper ocean" (Ken O. Buesseler) - Abstract

bullet_p"A nitrogen-, phosphorus-, and silicon-based model of primary production and export applied to station ALOHA: can we get the model to agree with the data for primary production, DOM concentrations and POM flux ?" (S. Lan Smith, Yasuhiro Yamanaka and Michio J. Kishi) - Abstract
bullet_p"Maximum resiliency as a food web organizing construct: heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton biomass across a trophic gradient" (E. Laws) - Abstract 
bullet_p"Translating net production to export: biological impacts on efficiency" (R. Sambrotto and S. Green) - Abstract 

Tuesday 25 June (morning) -- Session Topic C: "The flux of particulate matter in the water column: magnitude and depth dependence" -- Chairperson: Gerhard Fischer

Keynote presentations
bullet_p"Global export flux and regional functionality of biological pump: a result from JGOFS sediment trap programs since 1982" (Susumu Honjo, Roger Francois, Richard Krishfield and Steve Manganini) - Abstract
bullet_p"Factors controlling the flux of organic carbon to the bathypelagic zone of the ocean" (Roger Francois, Susumu Honjo, Richard Krishfield and Steve Manganini) - Abstract
bullet_p"How POC export, curvature in the Martin function, biogenic Si content and particle settling velocity are related" (Will M. Berelson) - Abstract
bullet_p"Global distribution of downward particle flux from models and measurements: do we believe any of them?" (Richard S. Lampitt, E.E. Popova and I.J. Totterdell) - Abstract

bullet_p"Coccolithophorids from the eastern Mediterranean: linking surface and export production. Preliminary results" (E. Malinverno, C. Corselli, P. Ziveri and G.J. De Lange) - Abstract
bullet_p"Quantifying phytoplankton contributions to carbon export using 13C" (Tom Trull) - Abstract
bullet_p"Spatial pattern of opal and CaCO3 fluxes in sediment traps: application to the LGM carbon cycle" (C. Klaas and D.E. Archer) - Abstract
bullet_p"The effective carbon flux in the Atlantic Ocean" (W. Koeve) - Abstract

Tuesday 25 June (afternoon) -- Session Topic D: "Benthic fluxes along ocean margins and in the open ocean" -- Chairperson: Richard Lampitt

Keynote presentations
bullet_p"Global distribution and magnitude of deep particulate organic carbon fluxes estimated by benthic flux measurements" 
 (Richard A. Jahnke) - Abstract
bullet_p"Cross-boundary exchanges of carbon and nitrogen in the marginal seas"  (Chen-Tung Arthur Chen) - Abstract
bullet_p"Decoupling surface production from deep remineralization and benthic deposition: empirical evidence and modeling challenges" (R. Armstrong) - Abstract

bullet_p"Considering the coastal ocean in global ocean biogeochemical models" (X. Giraud and C. Le Quéré) - Abstract
bullet_p"The role of eddies in controlling export production in coastal upwelling regime" (Nicolas Gruber) - Abstract

Wednesday 26 June (morning) -- Session Topic E: "Recent evidence for changes in marine biogeochemical cycles" -- Chairperson: John Steele

Keynote presentations
bullet_p"Responses of marine organisms and ecosystems to hydro-meteorological forcing" (Grégory Beaugrand) - Abstract 
bullet_p"An ecosystem models response to North Atlantic Oscillation like forcing" (Martin Visbeck, Marina Lévy, Naomi Naik and Jessie Cherry ) - Abstract 
bullet_p"Increased stratification and decreased primary productivity in the western subarctic North Pacific - a 30 years retrospective study" (S. Chiba, K. Tadokoro, T. Ono and T. Saino) - Abstract

bullet_p"Seasonal variation of export ratio in the Arabian Sea predicted by an ecosystem-circulation model with particle aggregation" (Michio Kawamiya and Iris Kriest) - Abstract
bullet_p"Potential responses of lower trophic levels to climate variability and climate change over the industrial era" (Patrick Monfray, L.Bopp, O.Aumont, C.Le Quéré and J.Orr) - Abstract
bullet_p"Simulated temporal variability of biogeochemical processes at the subarctic North Pacific time-series stations" (M. Fujii, Y. Yamanaka, Y. Nojiri and M. J. Kishi) - Abstract

Wednesday 26 June (afternoon) -- Session Topic F: "Hind- and forecasting biogeochemical fluxes with models" -- Chairperson: Steve Spall

Keynote presentations
bullet_p"The impact of climate change on the marine biogeochemical cycling: detecting change with biogeochemical tracers" (Richard J. Matear) - Abstract 
bullet_p"Implications of various depth levels used to compute export production" (Andreas Oschlies) - Abstract  
bullet_p"Controls on global particle export and remineralization: model development and calibration" (John P. Dunne, Robert A. Armstrong, Curtis A. Deutsch, Anand Gnanadesikan, Jorge L. Sarmiento, Panangady S. Swathi and Nicolas Gruber ) - Abstract

bullet_p"Preliminary results with CFC-11 in a high resolution general circulation model" (Akio Ishida, Yoshikazu Sasai and Yasuhiro Yamanaka) - Abstract
bullet_p"Preliminary results of a marine ecosystem model with Ocean General Circulation model" (Yasuhiro Yamanaka, Maki N. Aita, S. Lan Smith and Michio J. Kishi) - Abstract
bullet_p"One more 3D global biogeochemical model: are we doing a better job?" (E.E. Popova, A.C. Coward) - Abstract
bullet_p"Analysis of marine productivity and chlorophyll a with inverse techniques" (A. Winguth, M. Dobbel and B. Kirby) - Abstract
bullet_p"Dust impact on marine biota and atmospheric CO2 during glacial periods" (L. Bopp, K. E. Kohfeld, C. Le Quéré and O. Aumont) - Abstract   

Thursday 27 June (morning) -- Session Topic G: "The next generation of biogeochemical models: what level of complexity is needed ? -- Chairperson: Marina Lévy

Keynote presentations
bullet_p"What's missing in the ocean that the land already has?" (C. Le Quéré, I.C. Prentice, E.T.Buitenhuis) - Abstract 
bullet_p"Ecological rules for managing complexity" (John H. Steele) - Abstract 
bullet_p"Modelling the response of the ocean carbon cycle to climate change: is DOM necessary?" (I.J. Totterdell) - Abstract

bullet_p"The role of atmospheric dust deposition in supplying Fe to oceanic surface waters and the limitations of current modeling approaches" (Chris Measures) - Abstract
v"A study of ocean circulation using a tracer in a high resolution model" (Yoshikazu Sasai, Akio Ishida and Yasuhiro Yamanaka) - Abstract
bullet_p"Ocean carbon modelling: world perspective" (Ragasakthi S. Sundarvel) - Abstract
bullet_p"How may primary production be influenced by ocean DMS emissions: a climate modelling study of the CLAW hypothesis" (Steve A. Spall, A. Jones, D. L. Roberts, M. J. Woodage, T. R. Anderson and S. Woodward) - Abstract  
bullet_p"The Dynamic Green Ocean Model: plankton functional groups in an Ocean Global Circulation Model" (E.T. Buitenhuis, C. Le Quéré and O. Aumont) - Abstract

Thursday 27 June (afternoon) -- Session Topic H: "Future observations of biogeochemical systems: new technologies and Networks" -- Chairperson: Nicolas Gruber

Keynote presentations
bullet_p"Robotic observations of carbon cycle processes in remote and very stormy oceans" (Jim K. B. Bishop) - Abstract
bullet_p"Large scale estimates of primary production and export production: the JGOFS legacy" (Shubha Sathyendranath and Trevor Platt) - Abstract
bullet_p"Current JGOFS DMTT activities, and data management requirements for future marine biogeochemical projects - insights for modelers" (Margarita Conkright and Bernard Avril) - Abstract

bullet_p"Interannual variability of ocean mixing and biogeochemistry in the North Atlantic Ocean" (Michael J. Follows, J.C. Marschall, G.A. McKinley, S. Dutkiewicz, R. G. Williams and A.J. McLaren) - Abstract
bullet_p"Global transmissometer database as a tool for basin-wide POC assessment" (W.D. Gardner, A.V. Mishonov and M.J. Richardson) - Abstract  
bullet_p"Recent JGOFS DMTT activities: what do we have achieved so far? What are our plans?" (B. Avril and M. Conkright) - Abstract  
bullet_p"PANGAEA and the World Data Center for Marine Environmental Sciences – facilities for the final global data synthesis of JGOFS data" (M. Diepenbroek, H. Grobe and R. Sieger) - Abstract
bullet_p"Modelling the ocean with the aid of compiled data" (Jan R. Andersen and H. Sagen) - Abstract

Organizing Committee:  For any additional information or comments, please contact: 

Reiner Schlitzer (GSWG Chair)
Alfred-Wegener Inst. Polar-, Meeresforsch.
Columbusstraße, P.O. Box 120161
D-27515 Bremerhaven, Germany
Tel. +49 471 4831 1559, Fax. +49 471 4831 1149,
Patrick Monfray (JGTT Co-Chair)
Lab. Sciences du Climat et l'Environnement
CNRS / CEA / IPSL - l'Orme des Merisiers
F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
Tel. +33 1 6908 7724, Fax. +33 1 6908 7716,
Nicolas Hoepffner (Local Host)
Institute for Environment & Sustainability
Joint Research Centre, European Commission
TP 272, 21020 Ispra, Italy
Tel. +39 0332 789873, Fax.+39 0332 789034,

Location: The Ispra site of the EC Joint Research Centre includes the Institute for Environment & Sustainability (IES) in charge of the scientific and technical support to EU strategies for environment protection and sustainable development. Its integrated approach combines expertise in experimental sciences, modelling, geomatics and remote sensing, regrouped under various thematics or Units, e.g. the Inland & Marine Unit . The JRC Ispra is located in northern Italy on the east coast of the Lake Maggiore (see JRC map).

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