|Last updated 22.12.2003|
I.- Highlights of Research
International Symposium on the Biogeochemistry of the Arabian
Sea: Synthesis and Modelling
- Programme (18-20 January 1999)
as of 21 December
New JGOFS report (Nr. 28): Meeting minutes from the 11th
& 12th JGOFS SSC, and the 2nd NPTT meeting. On-line
synthesis and modelling activities are being listed in this
New CD-ROMs with JGOFS data are
announced in the catalogue
JGOFS Report Nr. 27.
Parameters of Photosynthesis:
definition, theory and interpretation of results. On line
NEW CD-ROM: data from
the UK contribution to the JGOFS Process Studies in the Arabian
Sea have been published by BODC
Poster titles and authors, presented at the International
Arabian Sea workshop at UNESCO (Paris) in June 4-5 June,
An update of JGOFS scientific rationale, activities and time
plans has been implemented at this web site.
The JGOFS Synthesis Plan is now on-line on this web-site
for papers from the JGOFS North Atlantic Synthesis group
Symposium and Training Course on Biogeochemical Modelling of the
Ocean: 2nd announcement
The minutes from the 12th JGOFS SSC meeting (Oban 1997) are now available at this web site
The JGOFS International Project Office has implemented a
catalogue of on-line
publications at this web site.
Conference on Marine
Environment, the Past, Present and Future: 1st Announcement
The minutes from the 1997 JGOFS
Executive Committee meeting are now available at this
A long-term record database is now available at CDIAC: Carbon-14
Measurements in surface water CO2 from the Atlantic,
Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994
Report from the
First meeting of
the JGOFS North Atlantic Synthesis Group
The North Pacific Task Team has launched a
site. Have a look!
The visiting schedule of the FTime Series station KNOT in the North Pacific has been
prepared by Toshiro Saino
The NPTT reviews plans
for studies in the North Pacific
Data Management Office has opened a web site
The Agenda of the 13th JGOFS SSC meeting in Cape Town is now
JGOFS-Japan has launched its
Second International Symposium on CO2
in the Oceans: 1st
International Conference on Coastal Ocean and Semi-Enclosed Seas
Circulation and Ecology Modelling and Monitoring: 1st
International Scientific Symposium and Training Course on Biogeochemical
Modelling of the Ocean: 1st
France has implemented a web site at Oceanologic Observatory
Highlights from the
International JGOFS Modelling Symposium in Oban, Scottland
Second Announcement of the International Conference on Benthic
Processes in the Deep Arabian Sea (1-3 July 1998)
The JGOFS International Project Office is building a
JGOFS library. It contains references to scientific articles,
presentations in conferences, theses, reports, articles in
newsletters, and much more. Have a look!
compilation of JGOFS refereed articles and invited book chapters
published between 1988 and 1996
The deadline for the next round of applications for the START
Fellowship/Visiting Scientist and Guest Lectureship awards has
been set for September 15
of an International Marine Science Symposium on North
Pacific biogeochemical process has been released
Ocean Circulation and Climate: the 1998 WOCE
protocols of the JGOFS core measurements (JGOFS Report Nr. 19)
are now ON LINE on this web site!
on the international Workshop on Continental Shelf Fluxes of
Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus
as of December 1996
First report of the JGOFS/LOICZ
Continental Margins Task Team
The JGOFS North
Pacific Task Team has been appointed
JGOFS Symposium on Synthesis and Modelling:
JGOFS Report: Remote Sensing in the JGOFS project
translation of interest to JGOFS Southern Ocean researchers
Report Nr. 19 (Protocols for the JGOFS core measurements)
has been reprinted by the JGOFS International Project Office
PARAMETERS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS:
DEFINITIONS, THEORY AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
JGOFS REPORT NO. 27
This is a revised version of the findings of the JGOFS Photosynthesis Measurements Task Team published in the Journal of Plankton Research, Vol. 19 no. 11, pp. 1637-1670, 1997. You can order a copy of this report from the International Project Office by sending an email to email@example.com. This report will be on-line soon.
The OCMIP has launched a web page...............
In 1995 IGBP
initiated the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP)
through the Global, Analysis, Interpretation, and Modeling (GAIM)
task force. OCMIP's immediate goal is to help identify and understand
differences between existing 3-D global ocean carbon-cycle models and
thus spped their development. During its second phase, (1998-2000) OCMIP
provides a crucial link between GAIM and JGOFS.
For information contact James Orr (James.Orr@ipsl.jussieu.fr), Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Unite mixte de recherche CNRS-CEA, L'Orme des Merisiers - Bat.709 - CEA/Saclay, 91191 GIF sur YVETTE CEDEX, France, Telf: (+33) 169 087 723, Fax.: (+33) )169 087 716
Find more about the activities of this project at their web site.
Measurements in surface water CO2
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994
Department of Physics, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
Antoinette L. Brenkert and Thomas A. Boden
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, WDC-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
|In the 1960s,
thermonuclear bomb tests released significant pulses of
radioactive carbon-14 (14C) into the atmosphere. These major
perturbations allowed scientists to study the dynamics of the
global carbon cycle by calculating rates of isotopic exchange
between the atmosphere and ocean waters. The Radiological Dating
Laboratory at the Norwegian Institute of Technology performed 14C
measurements of atmospheric CO2
from 1962 to 1993 at a network of ground stations in the northern
and southern hemispheres; in addition it performed 14C
measurements at high-altitude (between 9-12.6 km) during 1965 (Nydal
& Lövseth, 1983, 1996). The Norwegian Radiological Dating
Laboratory performed similar measurements on seawater samples
collected at the ocean surface from 1965 through 1994. The
resulting 14C ocean surface water database is documented here
is available from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)
as NDP-057A, free of charge.
The data from NDP-057A, coupled with other 14C data sets, can lead to a greater understanding of the dynamic carbon reservoir and lead to a crude picture of anomalous sources and sinks at different geographical latitudes. The database is outstanding for its inclusion of early 14C measurements, broad spatial coverage of sampling, relative consistency of sampling methods, and delta 14C calculation results corrected for isotopic fractionation and radioactive decay. This database replaces previous versions published by the author and the Radiological Dating Laboratory.
A total of 950 ocean surface water observations were made from 1965 through 1994. The measurements were taken at 30 stations in the Atlantic Ocean, 14 stations in the Indian Ocean, and 38 stations in the Pacific Ocean. Thirty-two of the 950 samples were taken in the Atlantic Ocean during the R/V Andenes research cruises.
|14C was measured in 871
of the 950 samples, and those measurements have been corrected
(delta 14C) for isotopic fractionation and radioactive decay. The
delta 14C values range between -113.3 and 280.9 per mille and have
a mean value of 101.3 per mille. The highest yearly mean (146.5
per mille) was calculated for 1969, the lowest yearly mean values
was calculated for 1990 (67.9 per mille) illustrating a decrease
over time. This decrease was to be expected as a result of the ban
on atmospheric thermonuclear tests and the slow mixing of the
ocean surface waters with the deeper layers. The range of delta
14C value is large and depends on where and when the sample was
taken, i.e., upwelling areas, far northern or southern latitudes,
near fresh water influxes, temperature, salinity. Besides the
corrected 14C data, the 13C data used for correcting the 14C for
fractionation are provided as are the temperature, salinity and
depth measurements, and information on where and when the samples
were taken. Data are plotted vs time and vs latitude with ocean
designations to provide quick overviews of data patterns. The data
are fully listed and are available as one file of around 0.08
megabytes. The format of the data file permits easy import into
PC-based spreadsheet software like Microsoft Excel. Programs to
read and print the data file (FORTRAN 77 and SAS) are also
Given the long period-of-record, this database may serves as a baseline for 14C measurements collected during more recent oceanographic cruises including the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), Transient Tracers in the Ocean program (TTO), South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment (SAVE) data and the older Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS).
Nydal, R., A. L. Brenkert (ed.), and T. A. Boden (ed.). 1998. Carbon-14 Measurements in surface water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994. ORNL/CDIAC-104, NDP-057A. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA pp.131
Department of Physics-NTNU
Sem Sćlandsv. 9, 7034 Trondheim
Phone 73 59 33 08, Fax 73 59 77 10
Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)
P.O. Box 2008 MS 6335
Oak Ridge, TN 37831
Visit CDIAC's homepage
In the equation for phaeopigments in section 8.0 of Chapter 14, the last term: - vol ex , should be substituted by the following:
(volex / volfilt)
The phaeopigments equation should then read as follows:
JGOFS Report Nr. 24
JGOFS report Nr. 24 includes more than 1,500 records of refereed articles and invited book chapters derived from JGOFS research, published in the period between 1988 and 1996. This is an update of previous Report No. 18. The document is available on-line at this web-site.
BIOCHEMICAL PROCESS IN THE NORTH PACIFIC
Proceedings of the International Marine Science Symposium held on 12-14 November 1996 in
Mutsu, Aomori, JAPAN
The symposium was organised and sponsored by the Japan
Marine Science Foundation, JAMSTEC,
Japan National Committee for IGBP,
the Oceanographic Society of Japan and the Geochemical Society of Japan.
The convenor was Shizuo Tsunogai from Hokkaido University.
The symposium was attended by 96 scientists from 8 countries consisting chiefly of chemical oceanographers.
The Proceedings cover the following topics:
If you want to order a copy of the Proceedings, please contact S. Tsunogai at firstname.lastname@example.org
The newly appointed JGOFS North Pacific Task Team sized the opportunity to hold its first meeting during the symposium.
Ocean Circulation and Climate:
the 1998 WOCE Conference
24-29 May 1998, Halifax Nova Scotia, Canada
The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) is a component of the World Climate Research Programme investigating the role played by the ocean circulation in the earth's climate system. Its aim is to develop improved ocean circulation models for use in climate research. The WOCE observational phase from 19901997 has used satellites and in-situ physical and chemical measurements to produce a data set of unprecedented scope and precision. WOCE is now entering its phase of Analysis, Interpretation, Modelling and Synthesis (AIMS) which will continue until the end of WOCE in 2002. The reconciliation of model results and observations, and ultimately the assimilation of ocean data into models, presents the ocean science community with a novel set of challenges.
The 1998 WOCE Conference "Ocean Circulation and Climate" marks the end of the observational phase and looks towards the challenges of WOCE AIMS. It will provide an opportunity for scientists who have been involved in the observational and modelling activities to display the progress made towards the programme's objectives and to highlight the intellectual challenges that remain to derive maximum benefit from the enormous investment already made in WOCE..
PROTOCOLS of JGOFS CORE MEASUREMENTS ON LINE
The Protocols for the JGOFS Core Measurements (JGOFS Report Nr. 19) is now on line. You can download the report and the software needed to view and print it from this web site.
THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON CONTINENTAL SHELF FLUXES OF
CARBON, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
LOICZ REPORTS & STUDIES NO. 9
JGOFS REPORT No. 22
The workshop was convened in Lagos,
Nigeria, October 14-18th, 1996, with participants from each region and
"resource people" to facilitate the effort. Preliminary
overviews and budgets were presented for each region. This was followed
by a three day workshop for each regional group to prepare a consensus
budget for their region. These revised budgets were presented in a
plenary session on the final day of the workshop.
It was the consensus of the participants that:
The budgeting approach should ultimately lead to more sophisticated biogeochemical or ecological modelling procedures which give potential to move from diagnostic to prognostic analysis. Good budgets require good data; budgets from data-poor regions based on "best guesses" may yield calculated fluxes which are unreasonable. In this context, the budgeting procedure assists in the identifying the gaps in knowledge which need to be filled in order to understand the role of continental margins as sources or sinks for C, N, and P.
A copy of this report can be ordered from the JGOFS International Project Office
FIRST REPORT OF THE JGOFS/LOICZ
CONTINENTAL MARGINS TASK TEAM
LOICZ REPORTS & STUDIES NO. 7
JGOFS REPORT No. 21
The Joint Global Ocean Flux Studies (JGOFS) and the
Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) are Core Projects of
the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme: A study of Global
Change (IGBP). They both have a
primary interest in material fluxes in the ocean. JGOFS focuses on
carbon fluxes in the open ocean, with interest in the continental
margins as inputs to the ocean. LOICZ focuses on the land-sea interface
and the coastal zone, with interest in the shelf edge as a boundary of
exchange with the open ocean. The region of the continental margins thus
marks an intersection between these two projects. Recognising both this
mutual interest and the importance of the continental margins, the
Scientific Steering Committees (SSCs) of these two projects have
established a Continental Margins Task Team (CMTT).
The CMTT was established as a joint working group of the Scientific Steering committees of JGOFS and LOICZ which each nominated a co-chair and three members of the Task Team.
To date, the work of the Task Team has been executed primarily by correspondence. Two ad hoc meetings of the co-chairs have occurred, and most members of the CMTT met in Texel, The Netherlands, on 16 April 1996. This document constitutes the first report of the CMTT back to the JGOFS and LOICZ SSCs.
This document provides recommendations to the respective International Project Offices (IPOs) to be followed in dealing with proposed or extant research on the open continental shelves, and secondarily to inform the National Committees of IGBP, JGOFS, and LOICZ as to how JGOFS and LOICZ are dealing with research of interest to these two IGBP projects. The report also makes recommendations for facilitating communication among scientists in these two IGBP core projects.
The contents of the report is displayed in the CMTT homepage at the following URL address http://www.ncor.ntu.edu.tw/cmtt/News/1996.html or at http://www.uib.no/jgofs/cmtt/News/1996.html.
THE JGOFS NORTH PACIFIC TASK TEAM HAS BEEN APPOINTED
The establishment of the JGOFS North Pacific Task Team (NPTT) has recently been approved by the JGOFS Executive Meeting. The Task Team is chaired by Alexander Bychkov (Russia) and co-chaired by Toshiro Saino (Japan). Members appointed to the NPTT are: Den Denman (Canada), Kyun-Ryul Kom (Korea), Chen-Tung A. Chen (China-Taipei), Bruce Frost (USA), plus one member to be announced. The NPTT plans to hold its first meeting in connection with the International Marine Science Symposium on Biogeochemical Processes in the North Pacifi, that will take place in Aomori, Japan, on 12-14 November 1996.
JGOFS SYMPOSIUM ON SYNTHESIS AND MODELLING
A JGOFS symposium on Synthesis and Modelling will be
held in Argyll (Oban), Scottland on May 20-26th, 1997. The goal of JGOFS
is to determine and understand the time-varying fluxes of carbon and
associated biogenic elements in the ocean, and related exchanges with
the atmosphere, sea floor and continental boundaries. The objectives of
the symposium are: (i) to provide the opportunity for JGOFS modellers to
meet; (ii) to present and discuss the results of JGOFS modelling studies
with observationalists; (iii) to present the results of JGOFS modelling
studies to a wider community, including IGBP Core Projects, e.g. GAIM,
DIS, GLOBEC, LOICZ and PAGES; and (iv) to make significant progress in
Contact person: Coleen Moloney, Marine Biology Research Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosh 7700, South Africa. Fax: (+27-21) 650 3301. Email: email@example.com
SENSING IN THE JGOFS PROGRAM
JGOFS Report No. 20 (September 1996)
A status report on national remote-sensing programs by the JGOFS Remote Sensing Task Team is available from the JGOFS Core Project Office. The purpose of the Remote Sensing Task Team (J. Yoder, Chair, J. Aiken, H. Fukushima, G. Korotaev, A. Morel, J. Parslow, S. Sathyendranath) is to evaluate JGOFS Research Strategies in light of recent developments in remote sensing hardware planned by nations space agencies and in relation to the evolving scientific applications of satellite remote sensing. In their report, they reviewed satellite sensors for the nineties, calibration and validation of satellite sensors, future data products from satellite ocean color sensors, and application of remotely-sensed chlorophyll fields to model primary and net production on basin and global scales.
If you want to order a copy of this report, or any other report from JGOFS Report Series, click here
TRANSLATION of INTEREST to JGOFS SOUTHERN OCEAN RESEARCHERS
An English translation of "Pacific Sub-antarctic
Ecosystems", eds. M. E. Vinogradov and M. V. Flint, Nauka Moscow,
1988, will soon be available from Janet Grieve at NIWA Wellington, Box
14901, Kilbirnie, Wellington . This book reports on a region bounded by
30o - 60oS
and 165o - 120oW
east of New Zealand. It includes sections on the abiotic components, the
microplankton, meso- and macroplankton, and structural and functional
ecosystem characteristics and models of their dynamics.
This volume represents a "budget" translation which has not been closely edited: there may be typographical or slight translation errors. The main caption of tables and figures have been translated; some symbols have not been converted to English equivalent. It is produced as single-sided, bound, xerox copy. Those interested, please contact Janet Grieve (firstname.lastname@example.org, phone: +64 4 386 0362, fax: +64 4 386 2153) as soon as possible in order to estimate how many copies are to be made. Price US$ 30 (including economy postage); US$ 40 (including airmail postage); NZ$ 40 for New Zealand resident purchasers.
Protocols for the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Core Measurements (JGOFS Report No. 19, June 1996)
The IOC Manuals and Guides No. 29 has been reprinted by the JGOFS International Office Project (IPO) in Bergen, Norway. An edited version of the preface of this report, written by Hugh Ducklow and Andrew Dickson, reads as follows:
The Joint Global Ocean Flux Study relies on a variety of techniques and measurements strategies to characterize the biogeochemical state of the ocean, and to gain a better mechanistic understanding required for predictive capability. Early in the program, a list of Core Measurements was defined as the minimum set of properties and variables JGOFS needed to achieve these goals. Even at the time of the North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (NABE), in which just a few nations and a relatively small number of laboratories contributed most of the measurements, there was a general understanding that experience, capability and personal preferences about particular methods varied significantly within the program. An attempt to reach consensus about the best available techniques to use is documented in JGOFS Report 6, "Core Measurements Protocols: Reports of the Core Measurements Working Groups". As JGOFS has grown and diversified, the need for standardization has intensified. The present volume, edited by Anthony Knap and his colleagues at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research, is JGOFS' most recent attempt to catalog the core measurements and define the current state of the art. More importantly, the measurements protocols are presented in a standardized format which is intended to help new investigators to perform these measurements with some understanding of the procedures needed to obtain reliable, repeatable and precise results.
The job is not finished. For many of the present techniques, the analytical precision is poorly quantified, and calibrations standards do not exist. Some of the protocols represent compromises among competing approaches, where none seems clearly superior. The key to further advances lies in wider application of these methods within and beyond the JGOFS community, and greater involvement in modification and perfection of the techniques, or development of new approaches. Readers and users of this manual are encouraged to send comments, suggestions and criticisms to the JGOFS IPO.
JGOFS is most grateful to Knap and his colleagues at BBSR for the great labor involved in creating this manual. Many scientists besides the Bermuda group also contributed to these protocols, by providing protocols of their own, serving on experts' working groups, or reviewing the draft chapters of this manual. We thank all those who contributed with time and expertise toward this important aspect of JGOFS. Finally, we note the pivotal role played by Neil Andersen, US National Science Foundations and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, in motivating JGOFS to complete this effort. His insistence on the need for a rigorous, analytical approach employing the best available techniques and standards helped to build the foundation on which the scientific integrity of JGOFS must ultimately rest.
This report is now on-line in this web-site.